The kingdoms and domains of natural life

All rules for the interaction of living beings

A circular economic model can be inspired from the interaction of the different domains and kingdoms of life. Observing their reactions, transformations and interactions we can learn from nature how economic fields can coexist and evolve sustainably.

There are three different domains of organisms:

  1. Bacteria
  2. Archea, among which we can find the monocellular organisms (prokaryotic cells)
  3. Eukaryotics, subdivided into four reigns:
    • Protista (algae and protozoa)
    • Fungi
    • Plants
    • Animals

Virus, made only by a protein wrapper with a RNA and DNA molecule. They are a thousand time smaller than a cell. Thanks to their features they are at the border with living and non-living beings.

No species eats its own refuses: what is refuse for one species can be eaten by another species of a different reign.

For example: plants are eaten by herbivores, who are then food for carnivores. When they die their nutritional substances come back to the earth and they will grew plants, so the cycle repeats. But if a  species starts to eat its own refuses its survival is at stake.

The mad cow disease bursted when the breeders started to feed their cows with wastes of other cows, ignoring therefore the above written rule. The same mistake had been made by the crayfish ones, when they started to feed the crayfishes with their own refuses and then many of them contracted the White Spot Syndrome Virus.

Same happens in industries: if an industrial sector keeps on using its own wastes on the one hand its flexibility will decrease on the other hand the risk of errors will increase.

A substance or a composite which is toxic for a species can be either neutral or nutrional for another species of another kingdoms.

Mankind tends to automatically classify a substance as “toxic” only from its point of view, but it doesn’t mean that this is the same for the other species of other kingdoms.

We can take the cyanide as an example. Together with the arsenic this is toxic for animals but the same doesn’t apply for plants, which produces and use them as a defence against predators.

Apples and peaches contain a lot of cyanide and they can still be eaten. We need to keep the 1st principle in mind: if a species deletes toxins inside its own system, this will degenerate”.

In high-komplex ecosystems vira remain unactive or even disapper without consequences if they cross at least other two kingdoms.

Vira can be deleted only if the 1st principle is applied: the butchering wastes cannot be used to feed cattle because the prion responsible for the red cow disease can survive under elevated temperatures.

In order to delete prions or vira in meat, these wastes should at least cross the other four kingdoms.

The more the systems are diversified and local, the more resistant and efficient they will be.

All co-existing and co-evolving plants with species of other kingdoms will have the best and most effective system inside their microsystem.

Nature has evolved from a small number of species to a rich biodiversity. Natures has always been undergoing a process of continuous change and innovation; therefore diversity means richness and standardization has a negative effect.

Nature works only with the locally available resources and a sustainable activity evolves only if their resources can diversify and get more efficient through creativity and new strategies.

If a non-native species cannot integrate with the ecosystem, this is going to collapse. In natural systems everything is connected and evolves through the symbiosis.

All Kingdoms change, integrates with one another and separate the matter at ambient temperature and pressure.

A spider can make its elastic and resistant fiber quickly only under the above written conditions. Moreover the net is auto-degrading and it starts to break when the tension lowers.

Just to mention a couple of other examples, the mollusc in cold water can produce a more resistant clay than the bullet-proof one; the enzymes can synthetize resins and polymers and allow the trees creating wood; the leaves can produce glucose using water and carbon dioxide always at ambient temperature and pressure.

Therefore, many technological processes of transformation and chemical synthesis need to be re-developed and re-thought, because if they are carried out under ambient temperature and pressure they have a higher energy-efficiency.

Furthermore, if the reduction of the productivity is compensated by a product with a longer life cycle and an increased added value, it is possible to introduce new sustainable and eco-friendly cycles.


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